Myanmar shares a border with China to the north and northeast. It borders Laos and Thailand to the east and southeast respectively, the Andaman Sea to the south, and the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh and India to the west.

Myanmar shares a border with China to the north and northeast. It borders Laos and Thailand to the east and southeast respectively, the Andaman Sea to the south, and the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh and India to the west.


Official Name
Republic of the Union of Myanmar

Nay Pyi Taw

Independence Day
4 January 1948

Population, Territory and Currency

Population & total area
57,526,449 (2022 est.)
676,578 square km

Source: CIA World Factbook

Burmese Kyat (MMK)
Average price per meal: SGD 2.70


Demographics Demographics

Male-Female: 49.2%-50.8%

Urban population: 31.8%

Youth aged 15-24 years: 17%

Source: CIA World Factbook (2022)

The Flag

The flag of Myanmar has 3 horizontal stripes of yellow, green and red with a 5-pointed white star in the middle. The 3 colours of the stripes are meant to symbolise solidarity, peace and tranquility, and courage and decisiveness respectively.

The Flag
Flag of Myanmar

Key Historical Events


End of Third Anglo-British war and establishment of Myanmar as a province of British India.


Japanese occupation.


Independence from the British.


Military general Ne Win seizes power and rules under a single-party socialist system.


Military junta takes control following a military coup triggered by the 1988 Uprising.


Opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) wins landslide victory in elections but the results are ignored by the military.


Military junta conducts an election, boycotted by the NLD. Hands over power to a nominal civilian government.


Opposition NLD led by Aung San Suu Kyi wins elections.


Following a massive election victory by NLD, voter fraud allegations trigger a military coup. Myanmar returns to authoritarian rule.

Economic Profile

As Myanmar moves out of the COVID-19 pandemic, its weakened economy experienced a -18.4% GDP growth rate in 2021, with the Asian Development Bank forecasting Myanmar’s GDP growth rate at -0.3% for 2022. Economic growth has been affected by the pandemic, as well as the ongoing political instability and disruption of critical services.

Nonetheless, Myanmar’s vast landmass, abundant natural resources and relatively young economy highlight opportunities in infrastructure and growth, especially in the sectors of transport, ICT, energy, clothing, and food and beverage. The government has also released a digital economy roadmap to boost growth in digital sectors.

Key Industries

Agriculture accounts for 60% of the GDP and employs 65% of the country’s labour force. Important agricultural products include rice, ground nuts, sesame, beans, pulses, sugarcane, lumbering, fishing and livestock.

The industrial sector accounts for 28% of the country’s GDP, with the major industries being agricultural processing, manufacturing, construction and automotive.

While Myanmar’s oil and gas industry is a significant player, the country is also expanding the development of renewable energy such as hydropower, which is the main source for electricity generation in Myanmar. The government also issued the National Energy Policy in 2014, which aims to electrify all households by 2030 and increase its electricity generation capacity.


Financial Services: While Myanmar’s financial system remains one of the least developed, the government is prioritising reform plans. The advancement of fintech has a potential to boost the financial sector, while local banks are expanding their networks, products and clientele.

Places of Interest

Places of Interest

Shwedagon Pagoda
Golden Dragon Pagoda

A gilded stupa located in Yangon. The Shwedagon is the most sacred Buddhist pagoda in Myanmar.

Anada Temple
Located in Bangan

The Buddhist temple houses four standing Buddhas, each one facing the cardinal direction of East, North, West and South. Said to be an architectural wonder in a fusion of Mon and adopted Indian style of architecture.

Local Food

Local Food

A rice noodle and fish soup that is a favoured breakfast dish. It is considered by many to be the national dish of Myanmar.

Tea Leaf Salad
The most popular Myanmar food. Sour, slightly bitter leaves are mixed by hand with shredded cabbage, sliced tomatoes, nuts and peas.

Shan-style Rice
Known as fish rice, it is a typical Myanmar food. It combines rice cooked with turmeric and topped with flakes of freshwater fish and garlic oil.

Major Festivals

Maha Thingyan
Also called the Water Festival, Maha Thingyan celebrates the descent of Thagyamin, a celestial Buddhist figure, to earth. The week-long celebration takes place around mid-April and is marked by the dousing of water at one another for cleansing.

Known as the Festival of Lights, it falls on the full moon of the seventh month of the Burmese calendar and signals the end of the Buddhist Lent. Devotees celebrate by lighting oil lamps, candles and incense at pagodas, and decorating their houses and gardens with colourful paper lanterns. Food offerings are also given to monks and the poor.