Brunei is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the Borneo island. It is surrounded by the state of Sarawak, Malaysia.

Brunei is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the Borneo island. It is surrounded by the state of Sarawak, Malaysia.


Official Name
Brunei Darussalam

Bandar Seri Begawan

Independence Day
23 February 1984

Population, Territory and Currency

Population & total area
478,054 (2022 est.)
5,765 square km

Source: CIA World Factbook

Brunei Dollar (BND)
Average price per meal: SGD 5


Demographics Demographics

Male-Female: 49%-51%

Urban population: 78.3%

Youth aged 15-24 years: 16.14%

Source: CIA World Factbook (2022)

The Flag

The flag of Brunei has a centred crest that symbolises Islam. The yellow field represents the sultan of Brunei, while the black and white diagonal stripes represent Brunei’s chief ministers. On the crest is the national motto of Brunei in Arabic: “Always render service with God’s guidance”. The inscription below means: “Brunei, the Abode of Peace”.

The Flag
Flag of Brunei

Key Historical Events

15th century

Islamic sultanate of Brunei nominally in control of Borneo, including Sabah and Sarawak state of Malaysia, and some parts of the Sulu islands in the Philippines.


Brunei becomes a British protectorate.


1959 Agreement gives Brunei internal self-government.


Widespread resistance to a proposed merger with Malaysia. Brunei chooses to remain a British dependency.


Hassanal Bolkiah becomes sultan following the abdication of his father, Sultan Omar.


Independence from the British.


First East Asian country to adopt Islamic Sharia law.

Economic Profile

Brunei’s small, yet wealthy economy encompasses a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition. According to the World Bank, Brunei’s GDP was worth USD 12.02 billion in 2020.

Key Industries

Oil, Gas & Refineries
Oil and gas production remains at the core of Brunei’s economy. Crude oil and natural gas production account for approximately 65% of GDP and 95% of exports, with Japan as the primary export market.

The Bruneian government aims to diversify its economy by exploring other industries such as infocomm technology and Halal manufacturing.

Places of Interest

Places of Interest

Omar Ali Saifuddien Mosque
Constructed 1958

One of the most beautiful mosques in the Asia Pacific, it is a place of worship for the Muslim community, a major historical site, and a famous tourist attraction. The mosque serves as a symbol of the Islamic faith in Brunei.

Kampong Ayer
Water Village

This historical floating village consists of more than 40 smaller settlements connected with a maze-like network of wooden boardwalks. It houses 13,000 residents who have their own schools, mosques and shops.

Local Food

Local Food

Nasi Katok
A dish comprising rice, fried chicken and sambal. Nasi means ‘rice’ and katok means ‘knock’.

Brunei’s national dish. It is a mix of starchy solid whites and water, and is served in a sticky consistency with cacah (dip).

Rice cakes made from glutinous rice wrapped in nyirik leaves accompanied with a peanut dip.

Major Festivals

Hari Nasional 
The annual celebration of Brunei’s independence from Britain on 23 February 1984.

Royal Brunei Armed Forces Day
The Royal Brunei Armed Forces Day commemorates the formation of the Brunei Malay Regiment on 31 May 1961, which was pivotal in Brunei’s preparation for independence from Britain. Celebrations include military demonstrations such as parades, parachute displays and mock battles.